A retraction means an article submitted to this Journal is considered invalid as a source of knowledge. To maintain the integrity of the scholarly record, therefore an article will be retracted if:
- There is major scientific error that invalidates the conclusions of the article.
- There is clear evidence that findings are unreliable
- There is a result of misconduct, e.g. data fabrication
- There is a honest error, e.g. miscalculation or experimental error
- The findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper cross-referencing, permission or justification (i.e. cases of redundant publication).
- There are ethical issues such as plagiarism, inappropriate authorship, e.g., "guest" authorship, and unethical research report.